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Doctoral candidates necessarily focus on the subject of their research project to become an expert in the area. After successful completion of the doctorate, the candidates will receive a Dr. rer. nat. in chemistry or biochemistry, which can be seen as a mandate for a broad scientific background in the whole area of chemistry.  Therefore the doctoral candidates will attend three lectures on Master level and one workshop on Scientific Integrity. We hightly recommed that all candidates choose from the broad program of transferable skill courses at the University of Cologne.